Why Does Neon Have 8 Valence Electrons

Why Does Neon Have 8 Valence Electrons – The octet rule states that atoms prefer to have eight electrons in their valence shell. Atoms participate in reactions and form bonds that require this electron configuration.

The octet rule is a chemical rule that states that atoms bond in a way that gives them eight electrons in their valence shells. It achieves a stable electron configuration similar to that of the noble gases. The octet rule is not universal and has many exceptions, but it helps predict and understand the bonding behavior of many elements.

Why Does Neon Have 8 Valence Electrons

American chemist Gilbert N. Lewis proposed the octet rule in 1916. Lewis noted that the noble gases, which have full valence shells of eight electrons, are particularly stable and unreactive. He hypothesized that other elements would achieve similar stability by sharing, gaining, or losing electrons to achieve a filled shell. This led to the formulation of the octet rule, which was later extended to Lewis structures and valence bond theory.

Atoms And Chemistry

Noble gases are relatively inert because they already have an octet electron configuration. Thus, examples of the octet rule include other atoms that do not have the noble gas configuration. Note that the octet rule really only applies to s and p electrons, so it works for main group elements.

The octet rule works because of the nature of the electron configuration in atoms, particularly with respect to the stability provided by a full valence shell.

Electrons in atoms are organized into energy levels or shells, and each shell has a maximum electron capacity. The first energy level holds 2 electrons, the second 8, and so on. These energy levels correspond to periods (rows) in the periodic table.

An atom’s most stable, low-energy electron configuration is its filled outermost shell (valence shell). It occurs naturally in the noble gases, which are on the right side of the periodic table and are known for their stability and low reactivity. Their stability comes from their full valence shells: helium has a full 2-electron first shell, while the others (neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon) have a full 8-electron shell. Atoms of other elements try to achieve this stable configuration by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons to fill their valence shell.

Valence Electrons And Ionic Compounds (video)

There are exceptions to the octet rule, especially for elements in and outside the third period in the periodic table. These elements have more than eight electrons because they have d and f orbitals in their valence shells.

It is important to note that these “violations” of the octet rule do not invalidate the rule. Instead, they highlight its limitations and point to the more complex and subtle reality of atomic structure and bonding.

The main advantage of the octet rule is its simplicity and wide applicability. It allows easy understanding of molecular structures and chemical reactions, making it an effective tool in the early stages of chemistry education.

However, the rule is not everything. The octet rule does not apply well to many molecules containing an odd number of electrons, such as nitric oxide (NO) and transition metal compounds. Furthermore, it does not take into account the relative strengths of covalent bonds and differences in bond length. So there are alternatives to the rule that cover most situations.

How To Find Valency? What Are Valence Electrons?

An important alternative is molecular orbital (MO) theory, which provides a complete and detailed description of the behavior of electrons in molecules. MO theory considers the entire molecule as a whole rather than focusing on individual atoms and their electrons. The octet law explains phenomena that cannot be explained, such as the color of compounds, the magnetism of molecules, and why some materials conduct electricity while others do not.

Another alternative is valence bond (VB) theory, which is a more complex extension of the octet rule. VB theory involves the hybridization of atomic orbitals to describe the shapes of molecules. Atoms with 8 electrons in the valence shell have the last orbitals completely filled and are therefore the most stable because their electron configuration is similar to that of the nearest noble gas.

The number 8 is considered a lucky number in many Asian cultures. The Chinese consider the number lucky because of its pronunciation

It means wealth. Interestingly, the Beijing Summer Olympics took place on August 8, 2008 at 8:00 PM for 8 seconds and 8 minutes.

Question Video: Understanding What The Octet Rule Is And How The Octet Rule Is Defined

The Japanese consider it a lucky number in relation to the idea of ​​prosperity, as the character for 8 in Japanese is 八, which gradually expands, indicating increasing wealth.

In alchemy, 8 is not a lucky number, but a number that signifies stability. The rule of 8 or octet rule is the tendency of atoms to have eight electrons in their valence shell.

For example, noble gases are the most unreactive chemical elements found in nature. They form the right side of the periodic table and are called noble gases because they are independent! They have 2, 8, 18 or 36 electrons in their last shell.

Atoms are reactive when their valence shell (or outer shell) is incomplete. For an atom to reach a full state or closed shell, it does one of 3 things: it loses, gains, or shares its electrons with other atoms.

Valence Electrons: Definition, Configuration, Examples

An atom is not as simple as we think – a nucleus with a few protons and electrons – but rather a combination of several shells arranged in concentric circles called the electron configuration of an atom. Jumping the valence cap can be a tricky concept, so let’s start with the basics.

The electron configuration of an atom is the distribution of electrons in the atom. Imagine our solar system with planets orbiting the sun; Similarly, an atom has electrons orbiting its central nucleus in different electron shells.

The Bohr model, invented by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr in 1913, was the first to suggest that electrons in an atom reside in electron shells. This shell allows only a certain number of electrons to be part of it. Another scientist pushed this theory forward and came across a unique finding in one of his lectures.

American physical chemist and professor Gilbert Newton Lewis suggested that, like a helium atom, with 2 electrons in the valence shell, 8 electrons can be arranged in successive shells that mimic the corners of a cube. This arrangement resulted in a very stable state due to the similarity of the atoms to the noble gases.

Electron Arrangement In Atom

Principal quantum number or energy level. In quantum mechanics, each electron in an atom is assigned 4 quantum numbers that indicate the electron’s unique state. These quantum states of the electron give rise to the wave nature or orbit of the electron.

This is part of advanced chemistry that is beyond the scope of this article; Further reading is recommended if needed/required.

So if n=1, ie. First shell, the number of electrons for this shell is 2. For n=2, the number is 8 and so on (2, 8, 18, 32…). Shells are also called K, L, M, N, etc. The energy associated with the energy levels increases as we move away from the core. The opposite charges of electrons and nuclei in lower energy levels cause the electrons to bind tightly to the nucleus. Electrons further away from the nucleus are more reactive.

! Another scientist, Wolfgang Pauli, probably had the same doubts, which led to the discovery of an interesting fact about the behavior of electrons.

Ch104: Chapter 3

Pauli came up with the Pauli Exclusion Principle in 1925, which asserted that no two electrons can occupy the same orbital and that the same orbital must have opposite spins. Briefly, a shell contains a subshell, and each subshell contains one or more atomic orbitals; Each orbital contains only 2 electrons, each with opposite spin.

Orbital. Each orbital contains only 2 electrons spinning in opposite directions. Only s and p orbitals are included in the octet rule.

Consider a sodium atom (11) with a total of 11 electrons. If you calculate the electron distribution based on the information above, you will see that sodium has 3 shells; As the first shell has 2 electrons and the second has 8, we have 1 lone electron out of 3.

The electronic configuration is 2, 8, 1. The first shell has only 1 orbital (n=1 and l=0) and has 2 electrons. The second shell has 8 electrons and 2 orbitals. The first 2 electrons form a unit

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Order of filling of electrons in atomic orbitals. Low energy levels are filled first. (Photo credit: Amalakanti Satya Sarada/Shutterstock)

The shell makes the sodium atom unstable and reactive. Because of the incomplete number of electrons in the valence shell, sodium is known to have an open shell. To achieve stability, the electrons in the last orbital form covalent or ionic bonds with others. This bond leaves both atoms with 8 electrons in their last shell and a more stable molecule.


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