What Is The Ph Value Of Ethyl Alcohol A 14 B 5 C 6 Or D 7 Which Is The Correct Option

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What Is The Ph Value Of Ethyl Alcohol A 14 B 5 C 6 Or D 7 Which Is The Correct Option

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The Difference Between Alcohol And Ethanol

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Author Karla Hanousek Čiča Karla Hanousek Čiča Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Priska Lukin Priska Lukin Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Dorota Derewiaka Dorota Derewiaka Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, Jasna Mrvčić Google Scholar Jasna Mrvčić Google Scholar Jasna Mrvičić. , * and Damir Stanzer Damir Stanzer Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1

Ethyl Alcohol Standard, 12.5% (v/v), 50ml

Received: 3 July 2022 / Revised: 2 August 2022 / Accepted: 4 August 2022 / Published: 7 August 2022

By studying the maceration parameters, such as alcohol and mistletoe content, we obtained high-quality macerates for the production of bisca, the traditional Istrian herbal brandy. An ethanol-water solution containing 25, 40, 55 and 70 v/v % ethanol and 20, 40 and 80 g/L mistletoe was macerated and pH, total acids, extract content and color parameters were measured. Volatile compounds were determined by GC/MS. More than 150 different volatile compounds have been discovered. The composition of the ethanol-water solution and the mistletoe content affect the total extract, total acids and color values. Samples with a lower alcohol content contain a greater number of different acids, aldehydes, alcohols, esters and ketones, while macerates with a higher alcohol content are rich in hydrocarbons and terpenes. ethyl decanoate; ethylhexinoate; ethyl octanoate; benzaldehyde; hexanal; octane; the terpene compounds limonene, cymene, menthone, humulene, eucalyptol, linalool and borneol contribute significantly to the aroma of macerates due to their low odor threshold. Ylangen and α- and β-bourbon are experimentally determined new terpene molecules not found in the mistletoe literature, as well as thujone, which was also detected. For the production of aromatic macerates, 40-50 v/v % ethanol and approx. 40 g/L mistletoe.

Herbal spirits are strong alcoholic beverages with a specific aromatic smell and taste, which usually contain up to 40 vol.% ethanol. As a rule, they are made by maceration of various medicinal, spice and aromatic plants in alcohol; distillation of alcohol in the presence of herbs; addition of herbal extracts to distilled alcohol; or a combination of some of these processes. They are made from one or more plant species, and the alcohol base is ethanol, wine distillate or pomace. Maceration produces a colorful alcoholic beverage which, in addition to all the aromas and colorings obtained from plants, also contains other nutrients such as sugars, minerals and phenolic substances, known as antioxidants, which have a beneficial effect on humans. body [1, 2]. There are several strong alcoholic beverages made from various medicinal or aromatic herbs, including oruja, zubrowka, and wormwood.

In different countries, herbal spirits differ primarily in the selection of herbs for their production. In the Mediterranean countries, which also include Croatia, the climate is favorable for the growth of various plant species and thus wild and cultivated medicinal and aromatic herbs. This is why herbal liqueurs and flavored spirits have been traditionally produced for centuries. Luczaj et al. [3] conducted 295 interviews on 36 islands in Dalmatia and Kvarner and summarized 114 types of herbs used by small regional producers for the production of travarica, a distillate of residues added to one or mixed types of herbs. The most used species are Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis L., Salvia officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Juglans regia L., Citrus spp., Ficus carica L., Laurus nobilis L …, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Rosa centifolia L. and Mentha piperita L.

Ethyl Alcohol 95%, Denatured, Lab Grade, 3.8 Liters (ss)

Biska is a traditional Istrian distilled beverage prepared by steeping the leaves and twigs of white mistletoe (Viscum album) in a base of water and ethanol, usually comovica (distillate pomace). Various compounds are extracted from the viscoethanol base, which form the bisque’s characteristic aroma, color and taste, as well as biologically active compounds that carry the bisque’s functional properties. In ancient Greece and Rome, white mistletoe was considered a medicinal plant and its extracts were used for medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes. Today, it is known that the mistletoe is a rich source of biologically active compounds, the content of which primarily depends on the type of host tree on which it parasitizes, as well as on the time of harvest [4]. White mistletoe contains various phytochemicals such as lectins, viscotoxins, polysaccharides, alkaloids, terpenes, proteins, amines, peptides, polyphenols, phytosterols and amino acids [5, 6]. Most of the research has focused on aqueous extracts, which have been shown to have a wide range of biological effects [7]. The mistletoe also contains some volatile substances, which have been little studied. Wang et al. [8] investigated the volatile and nutritional properties of Viscum articulatum. Ćebović et al. [9] investigated the non-polar components of Viscum album extract obtained with supercritical CO

Maceration, the technological process of extracting compounds from medicinal and aromatic plants into an alcohol base to produce flavored herbal distillates, has not yet been fully explored. It is known that in addition to the quality of the plants used, the quality of the maceration is also influenced by the maceration parameters, such as the ethanol content of the water-ethanol base, the plant-liquid ratio, the temperature and the duration of the maceration [1]. , 10, 11, 12, 13]. However, manufacturers of herbal medicines usually carry out the process of maceration of plants in a traditional way without precise knowledge of the influence of the maceration parameters on the amount and type of extracted volatile and biologically active compounds.

Since the maceration parameters of the mistletoe in a water-ethanol base have not yet been investigated, the purpose of this work is to describe the physico-chemical parameters of the samples (pH, total acids, total extract content, color parameters and aroma profile of the compounds). ) to obtain aromatic macerates with an attractive color.

Twelve samples of mistletoe macerates were prepared for the research, which differed in the amount of ethanol in the ethanol-water solution (A: 25, B: 40, C: 55 and D: 70 v/v % ethanol) and mistletoe concentration ( 20 ). 40 and 80 g/L). The resulting macerates were analyzed for their physicochemical properties: pH, total extract, total acids, colors and volatile compounds. Macerated mistletoe (V. album) was prepared by macerating dried and chopped plant material (leaves and stems of mistletoe) in a hydroalcoholic base. Hydroalcoholic bases were prepared by mixing 96% ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin and water. Plant material was weighed and added to 500 ml of hydroalcoholic base to obtain three different concentrations of mistletoe (20 g/l, 40 g/l and 80 g/l). Therefore, the samples are called _20, _40, _80 with a preliminary indication of the concentration of the hydroalcoholic base (A, B, C, D). Maceration was carried out in corked bottles at room temperature and in the dark to avoid exposure to the sun for 28 days. After the end of the maceration, the macerates were filtered through filter paper to remove the plant material, which was further compressed and stored at -20 °C. During the maceration, the samples were shaken by hand every day. The plant material was obtained from a local producer of herbal medicine (Croatia). Macerates were prepared in duplicate and all analyzes were performed in triplicate.

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PH measurements of all samples were made with an Oakton pH 5 plus meter (Oakton Instruments). The system was calibrated by placing the pH probe in a buffer of pH 4. Total acidity was determined by titrating 25 ml of the macerate with 0.1 M NaOH until the color changed, using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The results were expressed in milligrams of acetic acid per liter of macerate [14]. The total extract was determined by the gravimetric method and expressed in grams per liter of macerate [15].

Aliquots (7 mL) of alcohol were transferred to glass vials (20 mL) and sealed with silicone stoppers. Sampling was performed with a DVB/CAR/PDMS (divinylbenzene/carboxene/polydimethylsiloxane) fiber, 1 cm long, at 25 °C and an absorption time of 20 min using

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