What Is The Latin Word For Light

What Is The Latin Word For Light – A triangular prism scattering a beam of white light. Longer wavelengths (red) and shorter wavelengths (gray blue) are separated.

Visible light is generally defined as wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometers (nm), corresponding to frequencies in the range of 750–420 terahertz, between infrared (at longer wavelengths) and ultraviolet (at shorter wavelengths).

What Is The Latin Word For Light

In physics, the term “light” can more broadly refer to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, visible or not.

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In this case, light is gamma rays, x-rays, microwaves and radio waves. The basic properties of light are intensity, direction of propagation, frequency or wave spectrum, and polarization. Its speed in vacuum of 299,792,458 m/s is one of the basic constants in nature.

Like all types of electromagnetic radiation, visible light is emitted by massless elementary particles called photons, which dampen electromagnetic field quanta and can be analyzed as both waves and particles. The study of light, called optics, is the main research area of ​​modern physics.

The main source of natural light on Earth is the sun. Historically, another important source of light for humans was fire, from ancient fires to modern oil lamps. With the development of electric lighting and electrical systems, electric lighting has effectively replaced fire lighting.

Generally, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is divided by wavelength into radio waves, microwaves, infrared and the visible spectrum, which we perceive as light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. The term “radiation” does not include static electric, magnetic and near fields.

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The behavior of the EMR depends on its wavelength. Higher frequencies have shorter wavelengths and lower frequencies have longer wavelengths. When EMR interacts with individual atoms and molecules, its behavior depends on the amount of energy carried by each quantum.

EMR in the visible light region consists of quanta (called photons) that can cause electronic excitation in molecules, leading to changes in molecular bonds or chemistry. At d below the visible light spectrum, the EMR becomes invisible to humans (infrared) because its photons no longer have sufficient individual energy to cause a permanent molecular change (conformational change) in the retinal visual molecule in the human retina, causing this change. Stop the vision.

There are animals that are sensitive to various types of infrared radiation, but not to quantum absorption. Infrared radiation in snakes is a form of natural thermal imaging in which small packets of cellular water are heated by infrared radiation. EMR in this range causes molecular vibrations and heating effects, which is how these animals detect them.

Above the visible light range, ultraviolet light is invisible to humans because it absorbs less than 360 nm in the cornea and less than 400 nm internally. Additionally, the rods and cones in the retina of the human eye are unable to detect very short (below 360 nm) UV wavelengths and are actually damaged by UV radiation. Many animals with eyes that do not require lasers (such as insects and shrimp) are able to detect ultraviolet radiation using quantum photon absorption mechanisms in the same chemical way that humans detect visible light.

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The speed of light in a vacuum is defined as exactly 299,792,458 m/s (approximately 186.282 miles per second). The constant value of the speed of light in SI units is due to the fact that the meter is currently defined in terms of the speed of light. All types of electromagnetic radiation propagate in a vacuum at the same speed.

Various physicists throughout history have tried to measure the speed of light. Galileo tried to measure the speed of light in the seventh sphere. The first experiment to measure the speed of light was conducted in 1676 by the Danish physicist Ole Romer. Using a telescope, Romer observed the movement of Jupiter and one of its moons, Io. Noting irregularities in the separation period in the ion’s orbit, he calculated that it takes about 22 minutes for light to travel through the diameter of Earth’s orbit.

However, its size was unknown at that time. If Romer had known the diameter of the Earth’s orbit, he would have calculated a speed of 227,000,000 m/s.

Another more accurate measurement of the speed of light was made by Hippolyte Fizeau in Europe in 1849.

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Fizeau directed the beam of light at a mirror several kilometers away. A rotating gear wheel is placed in the path of the light beam moving from the source to the mirror and back to the source. Fizeau found that at a given rotational speed, the beam passed through one slot in the wheel on the way out and another slot on the way back. Knowing the distance between the mirrors, the number of teeth on the wheel, and the rotational speed, Fizeau was able to calculate the speed of light to be 313,000,000 m/s.

Leon Foucault conducted an experiment using rotating mirrors, which resulted in a value of 298,000,000 m/s

In 1862, Albert A. Michelson conducted experiments on the speed of light from 1877 until his death in 1931. In 1926, he improved Foucault’s methods by using improved rotating mirrors to measure the time it took for light to travel from Mount Wilson to Mount San. . Antonia in California. Accurate measurement gave a speed of 299,796,000 m/s.

The effective speed of light in various transparent materials with normal material is slower than in a vacuum. For example, the speed of light in water is about 3/4 the speed in a vacuum.

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Two independent teams of physicists are said to have “completely stopped light” via the Bose-Einstein condensate element rubidium, one at Harvard University and the Roland Institute for Science in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the other at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, also in Cambridge .

However, the popular description of “trapped” light in these experiments refers only to light stored in the excited states of the atoms, which can be re-emitted at any time as excited by a second laser pulse. The moment she “stopped” she stopped being smart.

The study of light and the interaction between light and matter is called optics. Observing and studying optical forms such as rainbows and aurora borealis provide many clues about the nature of light.

Transparent material allows or transmits light. Conversely, an opaque material does not transmit light, instead it reflects or absorbs the light it receives. Most materials do not reflect or transmit light in a specular manner and scatter incoming light to some extent, which is known as gloss. Surface scattering is caused by the roughness of light-reflecting surfaces, and internal scattering is caused by the difference in refractive index between particles in the material and the surroundings. Like translucent materials, translucent materials transmit light, while translucent materials scatter light of a specific wavelength through internal scattering.

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Refraction causes a straw to appear submerged in water and the scale of the ruler is compressed when viewed at a shallow angle.

Refraction is the bending of light rays passing through a surface between one transparent material and another. This is explained by Snell’s law:

N 1 sin ⁡ θ 1 = n 2 sin ⁡ θ 2 . sin theta _=n_sin theta _ .}

Refractive indices, n = 1 in a vacuum and n > 1 in a translucent material.

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When a ray of light crosses the boundary between a vacuum and another medium or between two different media, the wavelength of the light changes but the frequency remains constant. If the light beam is not orthogonal (or rather perpendicular) to the boundary, a change in wavelength causes the beam to change direction. This change in direction is called refraction.

Refractive quality lses is often used to manipulate light to change the size of an image. Examples of this manipulation include magnifying glasses, glasses, contact lenses, microscopes, and refractive binoculars.

“Light source” redirects here. For information about the solar energy developer Lightsource, see Lightsource Renewable Energy. For the particle accelerator used to produce X-rays, see Synchrotron light source.

There are many light sources. A body at a given temperature emits a characteristic blackbody radiation spectrum. The simplest source of heat is sunlight, radiation emitted by the Sun’s chromosphere at a temperature of about 6,000 K (5,730 °C; 10,340 °F). Peaks of solar radiation in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, plotted in units of wavelength,

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Another example is light bulbs, which emit only about 10% of their energy as visible light and the rest as infrared light. The most popular thermal light source in history has been solid particles that glow in flames, but they emit most of the radiation in the infrared spectrum and only part of it in the visible spectrum.

The peak of blackbody spectra is in the deep infrared region, at a wavelength of about 10 micrometers, for relatively cool objects such as humans. As the temperature increases, the peak shifts towards shorter wavelengths before a red glow appears, TL

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