Share Market Basics For Beginners Pdf

Share Market Basics For Beginners Pdf – Option trading may seem overwhelming at first, but it is easy to understand if you know a few key points. An investor’s portfolio is usually built with several asset classes. These can be stocks, bonds, ETFs and even mutual funds.

Options are another asset class, and when used properly, they offer many advantages that simply trading stocks and ETFs cannot.

Share Market Basics For Beginners Pdf

Options are contracts that give the bearer the right—but not the obligation—to either buy or sell an amount of some underlying asset at a predetermined price on or before the expiration of the contract. Like most other asset classes, options can be purchased with brokerage investment accounts.

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Options are powerful because they can enhance one’s portfolio. They do this through additional income, protection and leverage. Depending on the situation, there is usually an option scenario that suits the investor’s goals. A popular example would be using options as an effective hedge against a falling stock market to limit downside losses. In fact, options were actually invented for hedging purposes. Hedging with options means reducing risk at a reasonable cost. Here, we can consider using options like insurance policies. Just like you insure your home or car, options can be used to insure your investment against a downturn.

Imagine you want to buy technology stocks, but you also want to limit losses. By using put options, you can limit your risk of loss and enjoy all the upside in a cost-effective manner. For short sellers, call options can be used to limit losses if the underlying price goes against their trade—especially during a short squeeze.

Options can also be used for speculation. Speculation is a bet on future price direction. A speculator may think that a stock’s price will rise, perhaps based on fundamental analysis or technical analysis. A speculator can buy a stock or buy a call option on a stock. Betting with a single option—rather than buying the stock outright—is attractive to some traders because options offer leverage. An out-of-the-money call option can cost only a few dollars or even cents compared to the full price of a $100 stock.

Options belong to a larger group of securities known as derivatives. The price of a derivative depends on the order from the price of something else. Options are derivatives of financial securities—their price depends on the price of some other asset. Examples of derivatives include calls, puts, futures, forwards, swaps, and mortgage-backed securities.

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In terms of valuing an option contract, it is essentially about determining the probabilities of future price events. The more likely something is to happen, the more expensive the option that profits from that event will be. For example, as the stock (underlying) rises, the call value rises. This is the key to understanding the relative value of options.

The shorter the time until expiration, the lower the value of the option. This is because as we get closer to expiration, the chances of the underlying stock going up in price decreases. This is why the option is a wasteful asset. If you buy a one-month option that is out of the money and the stock does not move, the option becomes less valuable with each passing day. Because time is a component of option value, a one-month option will be less valuable than a three-month option. This is because as more time is available, the likelihood of the price moving in your favor increases, and vice versa.

Accordingly, the same option strike that expires in one year will cost more than the same strike for one month. This deterioration of options is a consequence of the decay of time. If the stock price does not rise, the same option will be worth less tomorrow than it is today.

Volatility also increases the value of an option. This is because uncertainty increases the probability of an outcome. If the volatility of the underlying asset increases, large price changes increase the chances of significant moves both up and down. An increase in price will increase the probability of an event occurring. Therefore, higher the volatility, higher is the price of the option. Option trading and volatility are thus intrinsically linked.

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Most of the US On exchanges, a stock option contract is an option to buy or sell 100 shares; So you have to multiply the contract premium by 100 to get the total amount you will have to spend to buy the call.

Most of the time, holders prefer to take their profits by exiting (closing) their positions. This means that option holders sell their options in the market, and writers buy back to close out their positions. Only 10% of options are exercised, 60% are traded (closed) and 30% are wasted.

Fluctuations in option prices can be explained by intrinsic value and dextrinsic value, also known as esteem value. An option’s premium is a combination of its intrinsic value and time value. Intrinsic value is the in-the-money amount of the options contract, which, for a call option, is the amount above the strike price at which the stock is trading. Time value represents the additional value that an investor has to pay for an option above the intrinsic value. This is the extrinsic value or time value. So the option price in our example can be thought of as:

In real life, options almost always trade above their intrinsic value, because the probability of an event occurring is never zero, even if it is extremely unlikely.

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Options are a type of derivative security. An option is a derivative because its price is intrinsically linked to the price of something else. If you buy an options contract, it gives you the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying asset at a specified price on or before a certain date.

A single option gives the holder the right to buy the stock and a put option gives the holder the right to sell the stock. Think of a call option as a down payment on a future purchase.

Alternatives involve risks and are not suitable for everyone. Option trading can be speculative in nature and carries a significant risk of loss.

A call option gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy the underlying security at or before expiration at the strike price. A call option will therefore become more valuable as the underlying security increases in price (calls have positive delta).

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A long call can be used to speculate on the underlying rising price, as it has unlimited upside potential but the maximum loss is the premium (price) paid for the option.

A prospective homeowner sees a new development. The person may want the right to buy a house in the future but will want to exercise that right only after building some developments around the area.

A potential home buyer will benefit from the option to buy or not. Imagine that they could buy a call option from the developer to buy the house for $400,000 at any time in the next three years. Well, they can – you know it as a non-refundable deposit. Naturally, the developer will not allow such an option for free. A potential home buyer is required to contribute a down payment to lock in that right.

In the context of an option, this price is known as the premium. That is the price of the option contract. In our house example, the deposit might be $20,000 that the buyer pays to the developer. Let’s say two years have passed, and now the development has been built and zoning has been approved. The home buyer exercises the option and buys the home for $400,000 because it is a purchased contract.

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That home’s market value would have doubled to $800,000. But since the down payment is locked into the predetermined price, the buyer pays $400,000. Now, in an alternative scenario, say the zoning approval doesn’t come for years. Four One year has passed since the expiry of this option. Now the home buyer has to pay the market price because the contract has expired. In either case, the developer keeps the original $20,000.

In contrast to call options, a put gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to sell the underlying stock at or before the strike price at expiration. A long put is, therefore, a short position in the underlying security, because the value of the put increases as the price of the underlying falls (they have a negative delta). Protective puts can be purchased as a form of insurance, providing investors with a price structure to hedge their positions.

Now, think of a put option as an insurance policy. If you own your home, you’re probably familiar with the process of purchasing homeowner’s insurance. A homeowner purchases a homeowner’s policy to protect their home from damage. They pay an amount called premium for a certain period of time, let’s say a year. The policy has a face value and protects the policyholder in case of damage to the home.

What if, instead of a home, your asset is a stock or index investment? Likewise, if an investor wants insurance on their S&P 500

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