If The Codon Consisted Of Only Two Nucleotides How Many Possible Codons Would There Be – , is the basic genetic unit of life that serves as a template for the synthesis of amino acids necessary for protein expression. All the information necessary for life is stored in the genes, and protein expression is the way in which the information encoded in the genes is expressed. Therefore, codons act as important
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If The Codon Consisted Of Only Two Nucleotides How Many Possible Codons Would There Be
A codon is a specific nucleotide sequence in mRNA that corresponds to a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein translation. a
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They form a codon or we can say that the trinucleotide sequence makes a codon in mRNA. The basic nucleobase of RNA nucleotides is:
Since the codon consists of three nucleotides, the codon will have three bases. Therefore, a common example of a genetic codon is a triplet code, for example, adenine-uracil-guanine (AUG), uracil-cytosine-cytosine (UCC), uracil-guanine-adenine (UGA), etc., which encodes for a given amino acid.
Because the grouping of codons in mRNA makes up the genetic code, a codon is the smallest unit of the genetic code. Simply put, each codon actually codes for a specific amino acid. It can also encode signals to stop or start the process of protein synthesis in the cell. See Figure 1.
Is the unit that encodes amino acids in DNA or messenger RNA (mRNA). The sequence of codons in mRNA determines
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Each codon consists of a set of three contiguous nucleotide bases (also called a triplet) in mRNA. This pair of bases is the corresponding anticodon of the tRNA molecule containing a specific amino acid. Ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs, have binding sites where tRNA can bind to the corresponding codon in mRNA. Synonyms: triplet coding.
The genetic code is the basic link between the amino acid sequence of a protein and the nucleotide sequence of RNA or DNA. Extensive research has established several basic properties of the genetic code.
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? To understand this, we should know the translation. A basic understanding of these cellular processes will explain the relationship between codons and amino acids. Each DNA contains genes that perform vital functions of life by producing essential protein molecules. Therefore, the expression of a gene requires the production of the protein encoded by it.
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Transcription is the first step in protein synthesis where DNA serves as a template for the production of mRNA or messenger RNA. During this process, the information encoded in DNA for each protein is transferred to mRNA. DNA acts as a template for base pairs to transfer protein expression information to mRNA.
MRNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid. The genetic information it carries is obtained from the DNA molecule through transcription. The genetic code includes the codons that will be translated into proteins. Therefore, codons and amino acids are closely related to each other and are essential for all life processes.
Anticodon, likewise, consists of a sequence of trinucleotides; However, it is found in transfer RNA (tRNA). An anticodon is a sequence of nucleotides that complement the basic sequence of mRNA. The presence of the anticodon in the tRNA ensures that the correct amino acid is incorporated into the protein structure. Now we clearly see that codons are present in mRNA while anticodons are present in tRNA.
All genetic information is encoded in the DNA molecule. The genetic information, then, is transferred to the mRNA as codons. Finally, the codon is expressed as a protein. Therefore, the basic function of codons is to code for the amino acids that ultimately make proteins.
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. A signal codon is a codon that provides a signal during the translation process; These signal codons can be further classified as start codons (i.e. codons that encode a signal to initiate protein translation, such as AUG) and stop codons (i.e. codons that end the protein translation process called stop codons, such as UAG, UAA). and UGA). Non-signal codons are codons used primarily for translation, usually after translation initiation codons.
Another way to classify a codon is whether or not it codes for an amino acid. Those who encode certain amino acids are called a
Next, we need to understand how many codons are in the genetic code. There are a total of 64 codons such as 4X4X4 now. and also,
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Of the 64 codons, 61 code for 20 amino acids and the rest code for signal codons. Is it amazing? Code 61 only codes for amino acid 20 and not 61! Well, that’s because if you remember the genetic code is degenerate. This means that there are amino acids specified by more than one codon.
TRNA should be able to detect the reading frame. The reading frame will contain a triplet sequence of nucleotides (sense codons) for translation. tRNA will recognize the reading frame for translation if the start codon
. It specifically codes for the amino acid, methionine (Met). In prokaryotes, it is also a common start codon, but codes for formyl methionine (fMet). Therefore, many proteins begin with Met (in eukaryotes) or fMet (in prokaryotes).
Other start codons are possible although rare. An example of a non-AUG start codon is the CUG codon that codes for leucine (Leu). In prokaryotes, the start codon can be GUG or UUG and in eukaryotic mitochondrial genomes, the start codon can be AUA or AUU.
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And these UGA codons that signal to stop translation are called stop codons (or nonsense codons). They signal the release of proteins built into the mRNA template. Therefore, this stop codon is also called
. Termination of protein translation that then results in protein release is associated with a lack of antioxidants in tRNA. The role of start and stop codons is shown schematically in Figure 5.
The sequence of codons between the start codon and the stop codon in the coding region is known as
Among the 64 codons, there are three codes for stopping protein translation; The rest of the 61 codons are expressed as proteins. All 64 codons are translated into their amino acids and are shown systematically in the amino acid codon table. To define and standardize the representation of these 61 codes with the corresponding amino acids, the codon table or amino acid codon table was developed. Standard amino acid codons are shown in the table below (figure).
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Figure 6: mRNA codon table: The mRNA codon table provides a schematic of the amino acid sequence. Credit: Scott Henry Maxwell, CC BY-SA 4.0.
Now we understand how to interpret or read this codon table. The most important thing to remember is that all codon tables are based on the UCAG nucleotide sequence of each nucleus. The Y axis represents the first nucleotide of the codon, while the X axis represents the second nucleotide of the codon. The two axes Y and X form the 12 quadrants of the UCAG sequence. The Z axis represents the third nucleotide where each of the 12 quadrants is first separated according to the UCAG sequence.
So, we will go to the first row and the second column. Now in this quadrant, the third nucleotide will determine the codon position of the fourth quadrant.
Therefore, we will reach the fourth quadrant of the first row, the second column, which codes for the amino acid serine according to the codon table. These steps are shown in the diagram below.
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Figure 7: Schematic representation of the sequence that must be followed to describe an amino acid using the codon table. Source: Dr. Amita Joshi’s online biology.
Identifying amino acids by codon sequence can also be done using a codon graph or amino code diagram (Figure 8).
Figure 8: codon table to describe the amino acids of codons. Credit: Onie~commonswiki, CC BY-SA 3.0.
In the codon diagram, the circle at the end represents the first nucleotide. The second inner circle represents the second nucleotide while the outermost circle represents the third nucleotide of the codon.
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Now, to decode the amino acid codon, you need to move from the innermost loop to the outermost loop, thus decoding the amino acid codon.
As well as the RNA codon table, there is also a DNA codon table. The only difference between the nucleotide base sequence of RNA and DNA is that in DNA, instead of uracil (U), there is thiamine (T). Therefore, the DNA codon table changes from U to