Green Roof Systems: Enhancing Energy Efficiency and Urban Biodiversity

Green Roof Systems: Enhancing Energy Efficiency And Urban Biodiversity

Green roof systems, also known as living roofs, have been gaining popularity in recent years, especially in urban areas. A green roof is a system of plants and vegetation that are grown on a rooftop. It is an excellent way to enhance energy efficiency, reduce carbon footprint, and promote biodiversity in urban environments. In this article, we will explore green roof systems and their benefits in detail.

What is a Green Roof System?

What Is A Green Roof System?

A green roof system, commonly known as a living roof, is an assembly of living vegetation and growing medium installed on top of a conventional roof. These roofs can consist of varying depths of soil, which are used as a growing medium for different kinds of plants. The structure of a green roof system can vary depending on the underlying structure of the building and the type of green roof system installed.

There are two types of green roof systems:

  1. Intensive Green Roof System: An intensive green roof system is for more significant building structures such as mid to high rise buildings. It can be used as public space such as roof gardens, recreational areas, etc. The planting medium is deeper, providing growing space for woody shrubs and trees.
  2. Extensive Green Roof System: An extensive green roof system is for smaller building structures such as single-family houses or garages. It is much lighter and therefore easier to install and maintain than Intensive Green Roof System. The planting medium is much shallower, which requires less irrigation.

Benefits of Green Roof Systems

Benefits Of Green Roof Systems

Green roof systems offer numerous environmental and economic benefits. Here are some of the notable benefits:

Enhances Urban Biodiversity

One of the significant benefits of green roofs is their ability to promote urban biodiversity. Urbanization has reduced the green spaces, leaving the cities with a concrete jungle. Green roof systems help to bring back the natural environment, providing shelter and food for various insects, birds, and pollinators. They can offer vital habitats for birds and other wildlife in areas where their habitats have been destroyed or replaced.

Enhances Air and Water Quality

Plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis and release clean oxygen into the atmosphere, making green roofs excellent filters for air pollution. Green roofs can also help regulate temperature by reducing the urban heat island effect, resulting in cleaner air and fewer greenhouse gases. They absorb and naturally filter rainwater, reducing the risk of localized flooding and preventing potentially harmful runoff from entering the water supply.

Reduces Energy Consumption

Green roofs provide natural insulation, reducing the amount of energy required to heat and cool buildings. They can provide sound insulation and a more comfortable internal environment. Green roofs can also effectively reduce the formation of heat islands, whereby cities tend to be hotter than rural areas due to the lack of green space. This reduction in heat island effect can, in turn, decrease the contribution of heat to the urban smog problem.

Improves Aesthetics of Urban Spaces

Green roof systems provide numerous benefits to urban areas through their aesthetics and functionality. They can enhance the appearance of an otherwise dull rooftop and replace it with vibrant hues and textures, making them perfect opportunities to beautify rooftops. They can make city landscapes look more attractive, providing a serene space for outdoor activities. Additionally, they can create value by adding green space in a city where land is expensive and valuable.

Increases Property Value

Green roof systems can increase the overall value of a property by providing an eco-friendly and sustainable feature that can be used to reduce utility bills or add to the urban biodiversity. Real estate appraisers are including green roofs in their assessments, and potential buyers are increasingly recognizing the value of sustainable features in shaping their purchasing decisions. In some cases, green roofs can result in higher rents for buildings that provide a more sustainable and attractive environment.

Real-Life Examples of Green Roof Systems

Real-Life Examples Of Green Roof Systems

Green roofs can be found all over the world, and they are being used in various capacities, from small residential homes to large commercial buildings. Here are some examples of green roof systems in action:

The Solaire, New York City

The Solaire is a 293-unit luxury rental building in New York City that features a 5,000 square foot landscaped green roof system. The green roof contains a range of plant varieties, including native species such as indigenous blueberry and winterberry shrubs. The installation of the green roof has helped to reduce energy consumption by up to 10% and has been instrumental in improving air quality in the surrounding area.

Stichting Roof Update, Rotterdam

The Stichting Roof Update project in the Netherlands is seeing the transformation of unused urban rooftops into green roofs that promote biodiversity and improve the living environment of the city. The project is critical because unused urban roofs increase the environmental impact of the city, contributing to ambient heating and flooding. By transforming them into green roofs, the city is increasing its capacity to absorb carbon dioxide and filter pollutants from the atmosphere.

Longwood Gardens, Pennsylvania

The Longwood Gardens in Pennsylvania encompasses 1077 acres of gardens, woodlands, and meadows, including several green roofs. The green roofs are part of an environmental sustainability program that Longwood Gardens has implemented to reduce energy consumption and limit the carbon footprint of its operations. The green roofs on the property help to reduce the heat island effect on their structures, reduce stormwater runoff, and filter pollutants out of the atmosphere.

How to Install a Green Roof System

How To Install A Green Roof System

Installing a green roof system involves several steps and requires a range of professionals, including designers, contractors, and engineers. Here is a quick guide on how to install a green roof system:

Step 1: Determine the Type of Green Roof System you Need

Determine which green roof system best suits your building and is appropriate for the climate you live in. Identify the appropriate soil depth, plants, and drainage system by engaging with a qualified green roof installer.

Step 2: Make Necessary Structural Changes

Ensure that your roof is up to the job of supporting a green roof system which requires up to six times the weight of a conventional roof. Engage a structural engineer to assess your building and make any necessary changes.

Step 3: Prepare your Roof Deck

Clean your roof surface and remove any existing materials to provide a clean environment. Install any necessary waterproof membrane and drainage systems and ensure they are functioning correctly. Work with a qualified green roof professional to properly install the growing medium and flora or fauna in accordance with the system selected.



Green roof systems offer a myriad of benefits to urban areas. They can enhance urban biodiversity, improve air and water quality, reduce energy consumption, improve the aesthetics of urban spaces, increase property values, and promote urban agriculture. More and more cities and property owners are investing in green roof systems, which is a welcome change that will hopefully continue to drive ecological transformation in our urban landscapes. So, the next time you look up at a rooftop, think about the potential for green roof systems to transform it into a more sustainable, beautiful, and biodiverse space.

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